Combat Rules

Combat
Combat encounters break out when the player characters run into an opposing force. That force could be a powerful solo monster, a group of terrifying creatures, or a gang of villainous nonplayer characters. The chaos of combat is organized into a cycle of rounds and turns.

Round: In a round, every combatant takes a turn. A round represents about 6 seconds in the game world.

Turn: On your turn, you have a specific set of actions that you can use.

Combat Sequence
A combat encounter follows this sequence:
Establish positions. The DM decides where the combatants start out on the battle grid. The DM shows the players where they can set up their characters, and then he or she places the monsters.
Roll initiative. Everyone involved in the encounter rolls initiative (roll a d20 and add the initiative modifier on your character sheet). This determines the order of battle for the entire encounter.

Take surprise round actions. If any combatants gained a surprise round, they act in initiative order, each taking a single action.

Take turns. In initiative order, highest result starting first, every combatant takes a turn. Repeat. Start a new round and repeat the initiative order. Continue until one side or the other flees or is defeated.

End the encounter. After one side or the other flees or is defeated, the encounter ends when the remaining side takes a short rest or an extended rest.

Taking Your Turn
On your initiative order, you take your turn. Your turn has three parts: the start of your turn, actions during your turn, and the end of your turn. For the DM, a turn consists of taking actions for the monsters in the encounter.

ThE START of YouR TuRn
Before you act, use the start of your turn to keep track of any effects.
✦ ongoing Damage. If you’re suffering ongoing damage, you take damage now.
✦ Regeneration. If you have regeneration, you regain hit points now.
✦ other Effects. Deal with any other effects that occur at the start of your turn.
✦ no Actions. You can’t take any actions during the start of your turn.

AcTionS DuRinG YouR TuRn
During your turn, you can take a few actions.
✦ Standard Action: You can normally take one standard action on your turn. Most attack powers require the use of a standard action.
✦ Move Action: You can normally take one move action on your turn. Walking your speed requires the use of a move action.
✦ Minor Action: A minor action lets you perform a task that requires minimal action or attention. Using certain powers and class features, drawing a weapon, or opening a chest requires a minor action.
✦ free Action: Free actions take almost no time or effort. You can take as many free actions as you want during your or another combatant’s turn, as allowed by the DM. Free actions include talking and dropping a held item.
✦ Any order. You can take your actions in any order, and you can skip any of them.
✦ Substitute Actions. You can swap a standard action for a move action or a minor action, and you can swap a move action for a minor action.
✦ Extra Action. You can take one extra action of any type by spending an action point.
✦ other combatants’ Actions. Other combatants can take free actions on your turn, and you might take actions that trigger immediate actions or opportunity actions from other combatants.

ThE EnD of YouR TuRn
After you act, use the end of your turn to keep track of any effects.
✦Saving Throws. You now make a saving throw against each effect that can be ended with a save. Roll a d20. If you roll lower than 10, the effect continues. If you roll 10
or higher, the effect ends.
✦ End Effects. Some effects end automatically at the end of your turn.
✦ no Actions. You can’t take any actions during the end of your turn.

DuRinG oThERS’ TuRnS
There are two action types that have triggers—an action, event, or condition that happens during another combatant’s turn. A power’s triggering condition must be met before you can use that power.

Opportunity Action: When an enemy lets its guard down, you can take an opportunity action. You can take only one opportunity action during each combatant’s turn. An opportunity action interrupts the action that triggered it.

Opportunity Attack: The most common opportunity action is an opportunity attack. When an enemy leaves a square adjacent to you, or when an enemy adjacent to you makes a ranged attack or an area attack, you can make an opportunity attack against that enemy.

Immediate Action: Interrupts and reactions are immediate actions. Every immediate action has some kind of trigger. You can only take one immediate action per round— an immediate reaction or an immediate interrupt—and you can’t take an immediate action on your turn.

Immediate Interrupt: This action lets you act before the triggering action is resolved. If the interrupt invalidates the triggering action, that action is lost.

Immediate Reaction: This action lets you act in response to a triggering action. The triggering action is completely resolved before you take your reaction.

Free Actions With Triggers: A few powers that have triggers are free actions. These powers act like immediate interrupts, but they can be used during your turn as well as during any other combatants’ turn.

Attacks and Damage
If you successfully attack an enemy, you deal damage, afflict your target with a condition or an effect, or both. To determine damage, roll the damage dice specified on the power you attacked with. Damage reduces a character’s hit points (HP).

Critical Hits
When you roll a 20 on the die when making an attack roll, you score a critical hit.Instead of rolling damage, you deal the maximum amount of damage possible for the attack.
For example, the dwarf fighter scores a critical hit with his basic melee attack. The damage for this attack is 2d6 + 3. Thus, maximum damage for this attack is 15 (6 + 6 + 3 = 15).

Flanking
Flanking provides a simple combat tactic for you and an ally to use against an enemy. When you are flanking an enemy, you have combat advantage against that enemy. To flank an enemy, you and an ally must be adjacent to the enemy and on opposite sides of the enemy’s space. You
and your ally must be able to attack the enemy. If you are affected by an effect that prevents you from taking opportunity actions, such as dazed, you don’t flank.

Combat Advantage
When a defender can’t give full attention to defense, it grants combat advantage to its attacker. This usually occurs when the defender is flanked, dazed, prone, blinded, stunned, or otherwise caught off guard.
✦+2 Bonus to Attack Rolls. You gain this bonus when you have combat advantage against the target of your attack.
✦ Able to See Target. You must be able to see a target to gain combat advantage against it.

Attack Types
There are four attack types.
Melee Attack. A melee attack targets creatures adjacent to you and typically uses a weapon. Attacking with a sword or a mace is an example of a melee attack. Some
monsters and special weapons have reach and can target nonadjacent creatures.

Ranged Attack. A ranged attack is a strike against a distant target. A ranged attack typically targets only one creature within its range. Shooting a bow or firing a magic missile is an example of a ranged attack.

Range: Ranged powers specify how far away from you a creature can be to target it. A power that has “Ranged 10” can target a creature 10 or fewer squares away. Some ranged attack powers instead have “Ranged weapon,” which means the power’s range is determined by the ranged weapon you are wielding.

A ranged weapon has two range numbers: its normal range and its long range. If a target is farther away than a weapon’s normal range but within its long range, the attack takes a –2 penalty to the attack roll.
Opportunity Attacks: Using a ranged attack provokes opportunity attacks from enemies adjacent to you.

Close Attack. A close attack is a force that sweeps outward from an origin square, whether from a sword swung in a circle or from a blast of energy that cascades outward.

Origin Square: Depending on the power you use, close attacks originate in your square or in a square adjacent to you.

Area of Effect: Each close attack has an area of effect, which determines the attack’s shape. A power determines what creatures you attack within that area—whether the attack hits all creatures, including allies, or just enemies. A target is not affected if you cannot trace an unbroken line between at least one corner of the origin square and one corner of the target’s square.

Area Attack. Area attacks are similar to close attacks, except that their origin square is some distance away from the user. A ball of fire that streaks across the battlefield and explodes is an example of an area attack.

Range and Origin Square: An area attack’s range is given in the power description. A creature must choose a square within range as the origin square. The origin square is where the area of effect is centered, and the character using the power must be able to trace an unbroken line
between at least one corner of the origin square and one corner of his or her square. An area power’s range includes both the maximum distance to the origin square and the
size of the area of effect.

Area of Effect: The area of effect sets the shape of the attack and determines the targets it affects. A power determines what creatures you attack within that area— whether the attack hits all creatures, including allies, or just enemies. A target is not affected if you cannot trace
an unbroken line between at least one corner of the origin square and one corner of the target’s square.

Opportunity Attacks: Using an area attack provokes opportunity attacks from enemies adjacent to you.

Cover
Enemies behind a low wall, around a corner, or behind a tree enjoy some amount of cover.
✦ cover (–2 Penalty to Attack Rolls): The target is around a corner or protected by terrain.
✦ Superior cover (–5 Penalty to Attack Rolls): The target is protected by a significant terrain advantage, such as when fighting behind a window or an arrow slit.
✦ Area Attacks and close Attacks: When you make an area attack or a close attack, a target has cover if there is an obstruction between the origin square and the target, not between you and the target.
✦ Target’s Allies Provide cover: When you make a ranged attack against an enemy and other enemies are in the way, your target has cover.
✦ Determining cover: To determine if a target has cover, choose a corner of a square you occupy (or a corner of your attack’s origin square) and trace imaginary lines from that corner to every corner of any one square the target occupies. If one or two of those lines are blocked by an obstacle or an enemy, the target has cover. (A line isn’t blocked if it runs along the edge of an obstacle’s or an enemy’s square.) If three or four of those lines are blocked but you can still trace one line to a part of the target’s space (such as through an arrow slit), the target has superior cover.

Concealment
When you’re fighting in an area of smoke or mist, or among foliage, you or your foe might have concealment
✦ Melee Attacks and Ranged Attacks only: Attack penalties from concealment apply only to the targets of melee or ranged attacks.
✦ concealment (–2 Penalty to Attack Rolls): The target is in squares of dim light, foliage, fog, smoke, heavy falling snow, or rain but is adjacent to you.
✦ Total concealment (–5 Penalty to Attack Rolls): You can’t see the target. The target is invisible, in darkness, or in heavy fog, smoke, or foliage and is not adjacent to you

Conditions
Powers, monsters, traps, and the environment can all cause conditions. A condition imposes various penalties.
BlinDED
✦ You grant combat advantage.
✦ You can’t see any target (your targets have total concealment).
✦ You take a –10 penalty to Perception checks.
✦ You can’t flank an enemy.
DAzED
✦ You grant combat advantage.
✦ You can take either a standard action, a move action, or a minor action on your turn (you can also take free actions). You can’t take immediate actions or opportunity actions.
✦ You can’t flank an enemy.
DYinG
✦ You’re unconscious.
✦ You’re at 0 or negative hit points.
✦ You make a death saving throw every round.
hElPlESS
✦ You grant combat advantage.
✦ You can be the target of a coup de grace.
iMMoBilizED
✦ You can’t move from your space, although you can teleport and can be forced to move by a pull, a push, or a slide.
MARkED
✦ You take a –2 penalty to attack rolls for any attack that doesn’t target the creature that marked you.
PRonE
✦ You grant combat advantage to enemies making melee attacks against you.
✦ You get a +2 bonus to all defenses against ranged attacks from nonadjacent enemies.
✦ You’re lying on the ground. (If you’re flying, you safely descend a distance equal to your fly speed. If you don’t reach the ground, you fall.)
✦ You take a –2 penalty to attack rolls.
✦ You can drop prone as a minor action.
SlowED
✦ Your speed becomes 2. This speed applies to all your movement modes, but it does not apply to teleportation or to a pull, a push, or a slide. You can’t increase your speed above 2, and your speed doesn’t increase if it was lower than 2. If you’re slowed while moving, stop moving if you have already moved 2 or more squares.
STunnED
✦ You grant combat advantage.
✦ You can’t take actions.
✦ You can’t flank an enemy.
SuRPRiSED
✦ You grant combat advantage.
✦ You can’t take actions, other than free actions.
✦ You can’t flank an enemy.
unconSciouS
✦ You’re helpless.
✦ You take a –5 penalty to all defenses.
✦ You can’t take actions.
✦ You fall prone, if possible.
✦ You can’t flank an enemy.
wEAkEnED
✦ Your attacks deal half damage. Ongoing damage you deal is not affected.
Invisible
✦ You can’t be seen by normal forms of vision.
✦ You have combat advantage against any enemy that can’t see you.
✦ You don’t provoke opportunity attacks from enemies that can’t see you.

Ongoing Damage
Some powers deal extra damage on consecutive turns after the initial attack.
✦ Start of Your Turn: You take the specified damage at the start of your turn. If you’re taking ongoing 5 fire damage, you take 5 fire damage at the start of your turn.
✦ Saving Throw: Each round at the end of your turn, make a saving throw against ongoing damage. If you succeed, you stop taking the ongoing damage.
✦ Different Types of ongoing Damage: If effects deal ongoing damage of different types, you take damage from each effect every round. You make a separate saving throw against each damage type.
✦ The Same Type of ongoing Damage: If effects deal ongoing damage of the same type, or if the damage has no type, only the higher number applies.

Resistance and Vulnerability
Some creatures are resistant or vulnerable to certain types of damage.

Resist: Resistance means you take less damage from a specific damage type. If you have resist 5 fire, then any time you take fire damage, you reduce that damage by 5.

Vulnerable: Being vulnerable to a damage type means you take extra damage from that damage type. If you have vulnerable 5 fire, then any time you take fire damage, you
take an additional 5 fire damage.

Other Actions in Combat
This section describes how to perform some of the most common actions available on your turn.

Basic Attack
As a standard action, you can make a basic attack. A basic attack is an at-will attack power that everyone possesses, regardless of class. Your character sheet lists the melee and ranged basic attacks you have.
You use a melee basic attack to make an opportunity attack, and some powers or effects (especially warlord powers) give you the ability to make a basic attack when it isn’t your turn.

Bull Rush
As a standard action, you can attempt to push an enemy away from you. To bull rush a target, make a Strength attack (equal to Strength check modifier; see your character sheet) against the target’s Fortitude defense. If you hit, you push the target 1 square and can shift into the vacated space.

Charge
As a standard action, you can launch yourself forward and make a melee basic attack. Move your speed as part of the charge. At the end of your move, you make a melee basic attack with a +1 bonus to the attack roll. You must move at least 2 squares from your starting position, and you must charge to the nearest unoccupied square from which you can attack the enemy. Charging provokes opportunity attacks if you leave a square adjacent to an enemy during your movement. After a charge, you can’t take any further actions unless you spend an action point.

Coup de Grace
As a standard action, you can deliver a merciless blow against an enemy that is adjacent to you and helpless (see “Conditions”). You can use a basic attack or any attack power you could normally use against the enemy. The attack scores an automatic critical hit, and if you deal
damage greater than or equal to the target’s bloodied value, it dies.

Escape
As a move action, you can attempt to escape from an enemy that has grabbed you. You make can make an Acrobatics check vs. grabbing enemy’s Reflex or an Athletics check vs. grabbing enemy’s Fortitude. If you succeed, you escape the grab and can shift 1 square.

Grab
As a standard action, you can attempt to seize a creature adjacent to you and keep it from moving. You make a Strength attack (equal to Strength check modifier; see character sheet) vs. enemy’s Reflex, and you must have at least one hand free. If you hit, the enemy is immobilized until it escapes or you end the grab. To maintain the grab, you must sustain it by spending a minor action during each subsequent turn in which the enemy remains grabbed by you. You can end a grab as a free action.

If you are affected by a condition that prevents you from taking opportunity actions (such as dazed, stunned, surprised, or unconscious), you immediately let go of a grabbed enemy. If you move away from the creature you’re grabbing, you let go and the grab ends. If a pull, a push, or
a slide moves you or the creature you’re grabbing so that it is no longer adjacent to you, the grab also ends.

Second Wind
As a standard action, you can spend a healing surge to regain hit points. When you do, you regain hit points equal to your healing surge value. You also gain a +2 bonus to all defenses until the start of your next turn. You can use your second wind once per encounter.

Stand Up
As a move action, you can stand up from being prone. Standing up does not provoke an opportunity attack.

Total Defense
As a standard action, you can focus your attention on defense. When you do, you gain a +2 bonus to all defenses until the start of your next turn.

Use an Action Point
Once per turn, you can spend an action point to take an extra action.
✦ You start with 1 action point after an extended rest.
✦ Most often, you spend an action point to take an extra action during your turn. You decide if the extra action is a standard action, a move action, or a minor action.

Use a Power
Most powers are standard actions. Refer to your character sheet to see what powers you have access to.

Use a Skill
Each skill has different uses and requires various actions to use. Refer to a skill or ask your DM how long it takes to use a specific skill in combat.

Movement

You can use a move action to walk your speed in a turn. If you use two move actions (substituting a move for a standard action), you can walk your speed twice during your turn. To measure distance on a battle grid, simply count squares. Moving diagonally works the same as other movement.

Move Actions
These activities require the use of a move action.
✦ walk. Move up to your speed. Moving out of squares adjacent to enemies provokes opportunity attacks.
✦ Shift. Move 1 square without provoking opportunity attacks. You can’t normally shift into difficult terrain.
✦ Run. Move up to your speed +2 squares and grant combat advantage.

Shift
Moving through a fierce battle is dangerous; you must be careful to avoid your foe. The way you move safely when enemies are nearby is to shift.
✦ Movement: Move 1 square.
✦ no opportunity Attacks: If you shift out of a square adjacent to an enemy, you don’t provoke an opportunity attack.
✦ Difficult Terrain: Each square of difficult terrain costs 1 extra square to enter, so you can’t shift into a square of difficult terrain unless you can shift multiple squares.

Run
You can run when you really need to cover ground fast. However, you must lower your guard and can’t attack well.
✦ Speed + 2: Move up to your speed + 2.
✦ –5 Penalty to Attack Rolls: You have a –5 penalty to attack rolls until the start of your next turn.
✦ Grant combat Advantage: As soon as you begin running, you grant combat advantage to all enemies until the start of your next turn.
✦ Provoke opportunity Attacks: If you leave a square adjacent to an enemy, that enemy can make an opportunity attack against you.

Forced Movement
Certain powers and effects allow you to pull, push, or slide a target.
Pull, PuSh, AnD SliDE
✦ Pull: When you pull a creature, each square you move it must bring it nearer to you.
✦ Push: When you push a creature, each square you move
it must place it farther away from you.
✦ Slide: When you slide a creature, there’s no restriction on the direction you can move it.
Whether you’re pulling, pushing, or sliding a target, certain rules govern all forced movement.
foRcED MovEMEnT
✦ line of Effect: You must be able to trace an unbroken line between one corner of your square and the corner of any square you move a creature into.
✦ Distance in Squares: The power you’re using specifies how many squares you can move a target. You can choose to move the target fewer squares or not to move it at all. You can’t move the target vertically.
✦ no opportunity Attacks: Forced movement does not provoke opportunity attacks.
✦ ignore Difficult Terrain: Forced movement isn’t hindered by difficult terrain.
✦ not a Move: Forced movement doesn’t count against a target’s ability to move on its turn.
✦ catching Yourself: If you’re forced over a precipice or a pit, you can try to catch yourself before you fall. You can immediately make a saving throw to avoid going over the edge. This saving throw works just like a normal saving throw, except you make it as soon as you reach the edge, not at the end of your turn.
Lower than 10: Failure. You fall over the edge.
10 or higher: Success. You fall prone at the edge, in the last square you occupied before you would have fallen. The forced movement ends.

Occupied Squares
In general, you can’t move through an occupied square.
✦ Ally. You can move through a square occupied by an ally.
✦ Enemy. You can’t move through an enemy’s space unless that enemy is helpless.
✦ Ending Movement. You can’t end your movement in an occupied square unless it’s a prone ally’s square, or it’s an enemy’s square and that enemy is helpless.

Difficult Terrain
Rubble, undergrowth, shallow bogs, steep stairs, and other types of difficult terrain hamper movement. It costs 1 extra square of movement to enter a square of difficult terrain. If you don’t have enough movement remaining, you can’t enter a square of difficult terrain.

Obstacles
You can’t enter a square with an obstacle that fills the square, such as a wall or a pillar. When an obstacle fills a square, you can’t move diagonally across the corner of that
square.

And because it’s often misunderstood:
Stealth
Make a Stealth check to conceal yourself from enemies, slink past guards, slip away without being noticed, and sneak up on people without being seen or heard.
This skill is used against another creature’s Perception check or against a DC set by the DM.
Stealth: At the end of a move action
✦ opposed check: Stealth vs. passive Perception. If multiple enemies are present, your Stealth check is opposed by each enemy’s passive Perception check. If you move more than 2 squares during the move action, you take a –5 penalty to the Stealth check. If you run, the penalty is –10.
✦ Success: You are hidden, which means you are silent and invisible to the enemy.
✦ failure: You can try again at the end of another move action.
✦ Remaining hidden: You remain hidden as long as you don’t attack, don’t move more than 2 squares with an action, keep out of sight, and remain quiet. If you move more than 2 squares during an action, you must make a new Stealth check with a –5 penalty. If you run, the penalty is –10
✦ not Remaining hidden: If you take an action that causes you not to remain hidden, you retain the benefits of being hidden until you resolve the action.
✦ Enemy Activity: An enemy can try to find you on its turn. If an enemy makes an active Perception check and beats your last Stealth check result, you don’t remain hidden from that enemy. Also, if an enemy tries to enter your space, you don’t remain hidden from that enemy.

Combat Rules

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